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Iron Deficiency Anemia: Newer Perspectives

Abstract


Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies, worldwide. The objective of this article is to inform practitioners on salient features of this condition. This review article covers the causes of iron deficiency, the diagnosis and the various treatment options available.

Anemia is a result from surgical and medical conditions. The first line of therapy for patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is oral iron supplementation. Patients in whom gastrointestinal blood loss exceeds the intestinal ability to absorb iron may develop iron refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA). Laboratory diagnosis showed serum ferritin is an extremely powerful test for diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia. Tests confirmed that Red cell distribution width (RDW) are not affected in anemia in chronic inflammation.

Alternative to oral iron route is intravenous treatment. Intravenous iron is more effective than oral iron when combined with ESA in chronic kidney disease. Intravenous iron supplementation fell out of favor secondary to the presence of infrequent but serious side effects. When planning to administer a large iron dose in single dose in single infusion the risk benefits ratio should be evaluated.


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