Hypertensive emergencies (as distinct from hypertensive urgency) encompass a spectrum of clinical presentations in which uncontrolled blood pressures (BPs) lead to progressive or impending end-organ dysfunction. In these conditions, the BP should be lowered aggressively over minutes to hours.Neurologic end-organ damage due to uncontrolled BP may include hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral vascular accident/cerebral infarction, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and/or intracranial hemorrhage.
Cardiovascular end-organ damage may include myocardial ischemia/infarction, acute left ventricular dysfunction, acute pulmonary edema, and/or aortic dissection. Other organ systems may also be affected by uncontrolled hypertension, which may lead to acute renal failure/insufficiency, retinopathy, eclampsia, or microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.
This article provides a good insight into a range of hypertensive emergencies, signs, symptoms etc and its management including pharmacotherapies.
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